What Does Industry 4.0 Include?
Industry 4.0 is the general characterization of a system and refers to a tripod organization. The feet of the organization are; internet of things, internet of services and cyber-physical systems. In Industry 4.0, which is based on the principle that systems are in communication with each other, machines will be able to communicate with each other, analyze the data and notify people when necessary. Machines will communicate with each other wirelessly through sensors. While all this is happening, the system will operate at less cost, produce faster, and have a very low-waste operation. The systems will be smaller than the old systems, but they will produce more secure. Robots are at the center of Industry 4.0. It is robots that manage machines, evaluate data, and make other production decisions. Lightless and unmanned production areas, which are called dark factories by some authors, will proliferate. Besides, 3D printers are another dimension of Industry 4.0. Thanks to these printers, all needs will be produced at home with a simple touch and dependence on large companies will be eliminated. It should not be forgotten that when Industry 4.0 becomes fully operational, social problems will also arise. The first thing that comes to mind is unemployment.
1. Internet of Things: It refers to the wireless communication of machines with each other. These machines can also be called robots. Each robot has its own communication address and they communicate with each other very quickly, keeping up with the changing production strategy. Decision making and implementation processes are very short. Data analyzes are delivered to all units immediately.
2. Internet of Services: It means that there will be new service areas that will emerge. It includes the people who will provide services over the Internet, the people who will receive the service, the software that will provide the relationship between them and the services themselves. Services such as e-mail services, cloud system are included here.
3. Cyber-Physical Systems: It is the general name of the systems that see their operations through self-managed sensors as a copy of the virtual world.
From Industrial Revolution to Industry 4.0
One of the areas most affected by technological developments is industry. Every technological innovation directly affects the industrial area and spreads rapidly in the production area. The beginning of the first industrial revolution was formed with the use of machines working with water and steam energy in the production area. Thanks to these machines, it was possible to produce faster, large factories were established and societies that started to industrialize were formed.
Mass production started and the 2nd Industrial Revolution took place when the slaughterhouses established in Cincinnati and the assembly areas in Ford factories were moved by electricity and a faster production was possible. The third industrial revolution was realized with the use of information technologies, automation and software in industry.
Principles of Industry 4.0
Interoperability: This principle refers to the communication between humans and robots. While people can control the machines remotely, the machines inform the system administrator when they encounter a problem that they cannot solve.
Virtualization: It means that the connection between humans and machines is not physical.
Autonomous Management: Machines in smart factories, namely robots, can take a production decision on their own, based on data analysis in ordinary situations.
Real-Time Capability: The production is based on data. When the data changes, production is intervened directly and production is reshaped. Because in Industry 4.0, all data in the system is collected in one hand. There is no complex pile of information. Unnecessary and untimely production is not done. Any malfunction in the system is immediately noticed.
Service Orientation: It means that robots reach everyone instantly.
Modularity: Also known as flexibility, this concept means that changes in the new smart factory system are easy. When there is a change in the production plan, a new production phase and technique can be started with the help of a simple program. Today, the factory or the machines need to be replaced wholesale.
Advantages of Industry 4.0
Thanks to Industry 4.0, the systems will make a fast and effective production. Possible malfunctions on the systems will be detected as soon as possible and the deficiency will be resolved. Efficiency rate is quite high and production will be focused on quality rather than quantity. Thanks to the flexibility in production, techniques will be changed with simple operation and the products will be manipulated. In the face of such a positive development, costs will be minimized, and large factories will be replaced by small equipment. Factories and houses will be able to be monitored and processed remotely.